Download American English File: MultiPACK Starter A by Oxenden PDF

By Oxenden

Four-skills American English direction with a communicative method, attractive texts, and a powerful pronunciation syllabus - designed to get scholars talking.

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Example text

To test a hypothesis, I must do subsequent research to find support, as illustrated on the right side of the vertical dotted line in Fig. 1. Let me also reiterate here that we cannot use a position paper to support a possible answer on the basis that the person giving the paper is famous or an authority in his or her field. Somewhere we seem to have picked up the notion that because someone is famous, what s/he says must be true. Unfortunately, many people have been led down many a wrong path by relying on someone’s fame or charisma.

C. the discussion section of a research article. 2. Why do you think these questions are important for others besides yourself? 12 CHAPTER 1 Where Are the Answers? The purpose of research is not only to raise questions, but to provide answers to our questions. Unfortunately, most people look for answers in the opinions of famous people before going to primary research. Such opinions are found in textbooks, published papers, and public presentations. However, before expert opinions can have any weight, they must be supported by research.

For example, Canale and Swain (1980) defined communicative competency with four other constructs: grammatical competency, sociolinguistic competency, discourse competency, and strategic competency. This does not shed too much light on what com- 14 CHAPTER 1 municative competency is, except that it is broken down into four abstract components. Before a construct like communicative competence can be of any use in research, it must be defined operationally. An operational definition is one that defines a construct in observable terms.

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