Download A Handbook of Management Techniques by Michael Armstrong PDF

By Michael Armstrong

This advisor to trendy recommendations in all fields of administration is a perfect significant other for pro managers, in addition to a necessary reference booklet for enterprise and administration scholars. It contains over a hundred systematic and analytical equipment used to aid in decision-making and to enhance potency and effectiveness.

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It can be described as procedures and information sources used by managers to obtain daily information about developments in the marketing environment. Marketing and other company staff come across information that may seem inconsequential but that might be of use in marketing planning. This includes reports of sales visits from members of the field sales force, which can include such matters as market developments, competitive products, prices and concessions and future customer purchasing plans.

Reposition brand to appeal to a larger or faster-growing segment. Encourage increased usage among existing customers. Modify product characteristics – new features, style improvements. Modify marketing mix, eg cut prices, advertise or promote more aggressively, move into higher-volume market channels. Decline stage ᔢ Maintain brand in the hope that competitors will withdraw their products. ᔢ Harvest brand, ie maximize profits by reducing costs but keeping up sales pressure. ᔢ Terminate and withdraw the product.

In such circumstances, the selling price of additional goods can be reduced, if necessary, to match the total variable cost without any loss to the company. Any amount by which the selling price exceeds the variable cost of marginal outputs is then an extra or marginal contribution to the company’s net profits and fixed costs. Again, this is a manufacturing approach. Break-even analysis Break-even analysis uses the concept of a break-even chart to develop a system of target pricing in which the company tries to determine the price that will produce the profit it is seeking.

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